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 Information on english

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الخنزير
عدد المساهمات : 136
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تاريخ الميلاد : 21/06/1995
تاريخ التسجيل : 27/07/2010
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مُساهمةموضوع: Information on english   السبت يوليو 31, 2010 11:06 am

by Peter Ladefoget [ 9th August 2000 ]
This book [ originally published in 1975 ] has also been through several editions and is still acknowledged as the best course for university undergraduates seriously interested in articulatory phonetics. Like the above title, it is offered as a "course", though it sufficienty comprehensive to satisfy the needs of students of linguistics. "Phonetics" focuses on "the production of sounds", while "Phonology" extends to the "study of sounds within a language system". Students whose practical and linguistic interests relate directly to the English language, should consider an easy practice book from the section above or the next title in this section by A. C. Gimson.
Gimson's Pronunciation of English [ 2nd March, 2001 ]
Originally published in 1962 as "An introduction to the pronunciation of English", there has been nothing to better this course, which covers the production of speech, sounds in a language, the English vowel sounds and the English consonant sounds as well as social (e.g. Received Pronunciation), geographical (e.g. Regional Variations) and historical perspectives.
English Accents and Dialects: An Introduction To Social And Regional Varieties Of English In The British Isles by Arthur Hughes and Peter Trudgill
This book is most suited to students of sociolinguistics who wish to sample variations from "received pronunciation" within the geographical regions specified in the title. The level of analysis is for people with a background in linguistics. However, an actor or actress wishing to perfect their Lowland Scots, Devon or Dublin accent and to pick up some of the lexical items in a particular dialect, may find this a valuable source. There is an accompanying audio cassette.
International English: A Guide to Varieties of Standard English by Peter Trudgill and Jean Hannah
This study takes English beyond the British Isles. Here the analysis focuses on variations from "received pronunciation" across Continents. "International English" covers the distinctive features of English in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Wales, the USA, Canada, Ireland, the West Indies, West Africa and India. Again, the work is probably most likely to appeal to students of sociolinguistics (language and society) at university level. However, this and the previous title make excellent background reading for any student undertaking stylistic analysis of any regional, social or occupational variety of English. Sixth formers in UK Secondary Schools are now continuously assessed on project work, which may include a study of the language of journalism (news reports), advertising, pop music, fashion, teenagers or other social groups. These projects are usually functionally based and adequate attention is usually given to language function and lexis. Further consideration could probably be extended to how phonetic & phonological features help to recognise the functions of professional and/or social registers. Some background in phonetics or phonology is really needed to get the most out of these works.

Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet
The headquarters of IPA is in University College London, which has been graced by the presence of many of the UK's best linguists, especially those specialising in phonetics and phonology. If you are looking towards a recognised qualification in both the practice and theory of phonetics, then the handbook will allow you to see the IPA Chart and will give you some idea of the number of sounds you will have to cover, including the bilabial click (a kissing sound which exists in several African languages, though not in English!). Likely candidates for the recognised public examination include linguists who are expected to be able to transcribe speech or speech therapists who are expected to have a thorough knowledge of speech organs and the methods of articulation. Linguists such as David Crystal have made valuable contributions both to language teaching theory and to description of language disability. There are careers for good phoneticians both in education and the health service at levels ranging from classroom teacher or practical therapist to senior researcher.
Academic research

Educational resources for phonetics and phonology from University College London.

People from various fields (higher education, language disability, drama) who wish to pursue an interest in phonology (e.g. for doctoral research) should take this link for a description of the MA in Phonology offered at University College London - the home of the International Phonetic Alphabet.

If you want to sample a text book for the study of speech pathology and audiology (which you may well use on a UCL course), take the link to a Speech Science Primer: Physiology, Acoustics, and Perception of Speech.

Vowel Phonemes

Lips loosely spread. Tongue lax with less tension than / i: /




pit

Lips loosely spread and slighly wider apart than / ɪ /




pet

Lips neutrally open and slightly wider apart than / e /




pat

Open lip-rounding, wide open jaws, back of tongue low.




pot

Lips neutrally open. Open jaws. Centralized quality.




luck

Lips loose, but closely rounded. Tongue not as tense as in / u: /




good

Lips in neutral position. Centralized. Tongue slightly higher than in /ʌ/




ago

Lips spread. Tongue tense (front raised) with sides touching upper molars.




meat

Lips neutrally open and jaws far apart. Centre to back of tongue fully open.




car

Medium lip rounding. Tongue drawn back making no contact with upper molars.




door

Lips neutrally spread. Tongue slightly higher than /ə/ (no firm contact with upper molars)




girl

Lips closely rounded. Back of tongue high. Tense compared with /ʊ/




too
Text to practise SHORT ENGLISH VOWEL SOUNDS

The story of Betty Botter and the butter - short vowels

Betty Botter had some butter,
"But," she said, "this butter's bitter.
If I put it in my batter,
It would make my batter bitter.
But a bit of better butter-
Better than the bitter butter-
That would make my batter better."

So she bought a bit of butter,
Better than the bitter butter,
And she put it in her batter,
And it made her batter better.

So it was better Betty Botter
Bought a bit of better butter.

The cold old house - long vowels and diphthongs

I once knew a house,
A cold, old house,
A cold, old house by the sea.
If I were a mouse,
In a cold, old house,
What a cold, old mouse I would be!

I joined the navy - long vowels and diphthongs

I joined the navy,
To see the sea.
And what did I see?
I saw the sea.

The wild rover - long vowels and diphthongs

I've been a wild rover for many a year,
And I've spent all my money on whisky and beer,
But now I'm returning with gold in great store,
Now I never will play the wild rover no more

And it's no, nay, never,
No nay never, no more,
Will I play the wild rover?
No, never, no more.
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